Tuesday, April 18, 2017


biblicalhumanities.org is a community of computer scientists, Bible scholars, and digital humanists collaborating to create open digital resources for biblical studies. Our emphasis is on open resources for biblical languages, such as morphologically tagged texts, treebanks, and lexicons. We hope that these resources will be used widely for teaching, research, and resources used to read and study the Bible.
We are working to grow a community, not to own it or control it. We try to track resources that exist, create resources that are missing, and help people coordinate with others who are working on similar things to maximize interoperability and minimize duplication of effort. See our dashboard for an overview of these resources. We are now beginning to create standards to maximize interoperability among resources.
In addition, we sponsor two online forums for discussing biblical languages:
  • Nestle 1904 Greek New Testament
    • Diego Santos (.odt, .pdf): Text of the Nestle 1904 Greek New Testament. Used in morphologically tagged texts and treebanks listed below. Not under source code control.
  • SBL Greek New Testament
    • SBLGNT (XML, OSIS, text, several other formats): High quality critical text created by Logos Software and the Society of Biblical Literature. Note the license, which imposes conditions on downstream works that use it.
  • Greek New Testament - Byzantine Text
    • byztxt.com: Robinson-Pierpoint Byzantine text, a Majority Text.
  • Codex Sinaiticus
  • Swete’s Septuagint
  • Migne’s Patrologia Graeca
  • Cramer’s Catenae
    • OpenGreekAndLatin (XML): For each verse, lists any comments that the early Fathers made on that verse.
  • Sefaria
    • Sefaria (JSON): A wonderful collection of Jewish texts containing Tanakh, Commentaries (Rashi, Ibn Ezra, etc.), Midrash, Targums, Talmud, Kabbalah, a lexicon, and a Hebrew grammar.

Morphologically Tagged Texts

  • Nestle 1904 Greek New Testament
  • SBLGNT Greek New Testament
    • MorphGNT (Plain text in columns): SBLGNT, done by MorphGNT, the first initiative to produce truly open high quality morphologies for the Greek New Testament.
  • Westcott-Hort
  • Tischendorff Greek New Testament
    • MorphGNT (Plain text in columns): Tischendorff, done by MorphGNT.
  • Rahlf’s Septuagint
  • Swete’s Septuagint
    • An openly licensed morphologically tagged Swete’s Septuagint is under development. Contact James Tauber for details.
  • Coptic Scriptorium
    • Coptic Scriptorium (XML): Coptic corpus with morphology and phrasing. Freely licensed, data available on Github.
  • Hebrew Old Testament
    • Shebanq (SQL): Hebrew Old Testament, SQL database data.


  • Nestle 1904 Greek New Testament
    • Global Bible Initiative (XML): High quality treebank using HPSG constituent grammar.
    • Lowfat (XML): Lowfat trees transformed from GBI trees to make them easier to query. XML text.
  • SBLGNT Greek New Testament
    • Global Bible Initiative (XML): High quality treebank using HPSG constituent grammar.
    • Lowfat (XML): Lowfat trees transformed from GBI trees to make them easier to query.
  • Tischendorff Greek New Testament
    • PROIEL (XML): High quality dependency trees in an eclectic and expressive format. Part of a parallel corpus of old Indo-European Bible translations, including Greek, Armenian, Gothic, Old Church Slavonic, and Latin.
  • Hebrew Old Testament
    • Shebanq (SQL): Hebrew Old Testament, SQL database data.

Discourse Analysis

  • Levinsohn’s Greek New Testament Discourse Features
    • Levinsohn: Stephen Levinsohn’s complete discourse features markup of the Greek New Testament (UBS4/NA27). Released by SIL International and Paul O’Rear, and recognized as the 2016 Dataset of the Year.


  • Abbott-Smith
  • Dodson
    • biblicalhumanities (CSV, XML): This lexicon has simple glosses and short definitions. Originally developed by Jeffrey Dodson, released to the public domain.
  • Liddell-Scott-Jones
    • Perseus Lexica (TEI XML): The Great Scott, a massive and extremely useful lexicon. The version currently used on Perseus, converted to Unicode, can be found in Giuseppe Celano’s repository. (The smaller “Middle Liddell” is also available from Perseus.)
  • Mounce Lexicon
    • Mounce (JSON): Mounce’s Concise Greek-English Dictionary of Biblical Greek.
  • Strong’s Dictionary
    • MorphGNT (XML): One of the most commonly used lexicons, keyed to Strong’s Numbers for easy cross reference.
  • Hebrew Lexicon
    • Shebanq (XML): A Hebrew lexicon from the Shebanq project.

Grammars and Paradigms

  • Greek Syntax
    • Rydberg-Cox(XML): Jeffrey A. Rydberg-Cox, Overview of Greek Syntax. Extremely useful summaries of Greek syntax, easily integrated into a reading environment.
  • Greek Paradigms
    • Masternarde (HTML, PDF): Ancient Greek Tutorials, by Donald J. Mastronarde with the assistance of the Berkeley Language Center of the University of California, Berkeley. ©1999-2005 The Regents of the University of California. Copyright prevents free distribution, but this can be useful for producing resources.
  • Gesenius’ Hebrew Grammar
    • Gesenius: An old classic reference grammar.

Commentaries, Secondary Literature, and Other Resources

  • Lace
    • Lace(hOCR): Contains a massive number of Greek texts in hOCR format, including several scholarly commentaries on the Greek text of each New Testament book, Septuagint resources, Cramer’s Catenae, Migne, the Sophocles lexicon, and many other resources that are just begging for the community to adopt and do manual editing.
  • Bible Support

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